endothelial glycocalyx
Structure of Endothelial Glycocylax and Its Activation of Vascular Muscle Relaxation Via NO In Response to Increased Shear Force
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About the Endothelial Glycocalyx

The endothelial glycocalyx is a thin gel-like layer that coats the entire luminal side of the vascular endothelium1. Its functions in vascular and micro-vascular health include:

  • Regulates vascular permeability and fluid balance due to the large size and negative charge of its glycosaminoglycans2,3
  • Provides a physical barrier against inadvertent adhesion of platelets and leukocytes to the vascular wall4
  • Regulates coagulation as many of mediators of coagulation pathway are buried inside the glycocalyx under normal physiological condition5
  • • Functions as a mechano-sensor and -transducer of the shear-force inside blood vessels to regulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in response to the blood flow3,6

GylcoCalyx Damage and Associated Pathologies


Endothelial glycocalyx is a delicate structure and can be damaged under many conditions. Pathologies associated with impaired endothelial glycocalyx include:

  • Coronary heart disease7
  • Hyperglycemia8
  • Diabetes9
  • Renal diseases10
  • Lacunar stroke11
  • Severe trauma12
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Monostroma Nitidum
Monostroma Nitidum

About ArterosilHP

The primary active ingredient of ArterosilHP is rhamnan sulfate, derived from Monostroma nitidum, a rare green seaweed found in east Asia.

Rhamnan sulfate, a negatively charged polysaccharide, was reported to posses anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity by some early studies13,14 and this was verified by other researchers later15.

Rhamnan sulfate has a similar chemical structure to heparan sulfate found abundantly in human endothelial glycocalyx and may exert its biological activities by regenerating endothelial glycocalyx.

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Human Clinical Trial


An independent clinical trial of Arterosil® was conducted with a group of healthy human subjects. It demonstrated measurable improvements in the glycocalyx following consumption of the supplement.

Additional Research

Tests using lab animals showed rhamnan sulfate reversed the leukocytes adherence to endothelium induced by enzymatic removal of glycocalyx (unpublished data).

Other researchers have reported that rhamnan sulfate enhances the endothelial glycocalyx and decreases the LDL permeability of human coronary artery endothelial cells16.

A Japanese study demonstrated that daily supplementation of a crude rhamnan sulfate extract for 6 weeks significantly lowered total and LDL cholesterol in borderline or mild hypercholesterolemia human subjects17

Another study also from Japan later showed that oral administration of crude extract of rhamnan sulfate to carbohydrate-loaded rats significantly reduced their blood glucose level compared to the control animals18.

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Arterosil HP

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  • Bernhard F. Becker, Daniel Chappell, Dirk Bruegger, Thorsten Annecke & Matthias Jacob. Therapeutic Strategies Targeting the Endothelial Glycocalyx: Acute Deficits, but Great Potential. Cardiovascular Research (2010) 87:300–310.
  • Bernard F. Becker, Daniel Chappell & Matthias Jacob. Endothelial Glycocalyx and Coronary Vascular Permeability: the Fringe Benefit. Basic Research in Cardiology (2010) 105:687–701.
  • F. E. Curry & R. H. Adamson. Endothelial Glycocalyx: Permeability Barrier and Mechanosensor. Annals of Biomedical Engineering (2012) 40:828–839.
  • A. W. Mulivor & H. H. Lipowsky. Role of Glycocalyx in Leukocyte-endothelial Cell Adhesion. American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology (2002) 283(4):H1282–H1291.
  • Sietze Reitsma, Dick W. Slaaf, Hans Vink, Marc A. M. J. van Zandvoort & Mirjam G. A. oude Egbrink. The Endothelial Glycocalyx: Composition, Functions, and Visualization. Eur J Physiol (2007) 454:345–359.
  • Bingmei M. Fu & John M. Tarbell. Mechano-sensing and Transduction by Endothelial Surface Glycocalyx: Composition, Structure, and Function. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. (2013) 5(3): 381–390.
  • Ties A. Mulders, Max Nieuwdorp, Erik S Stroes, Hans Vink & Sara-Joan Pinto-Sietsma. Non-invasive Assessment of Microvascular Dysfunction in Families with Premature Coronary Artery Disease. Int J Cardiol. (2013) 168(5):5026-5028.
  • Max Nieuwdorp, Timon W. van Haeften, Mirella C.L.G. Gouverneur, Hans L. Mooij, Miriam H.P. van Lieshout, Marcel Levi, Joost C.M. Meijers, Frits Holleman, Joost B.L. Hoekstra, Hans Vink, John J.P. Kastelein & Erik S.G. Stroes. Loss of Endothelial Glycocalyx During Acute Hyperglycemia Coincides With Endothelial Dysfunction and Coagulation Activation In Vivo. Diabetes (2006) 55(2):480-486.
  • Claudia Nussbaum, Ana Cavalcanti Fernandes Heringa, Zuzana Mormanova, Alexandra F. Puchwein-Schwepcke, Susanne Bechtold-Dalla Pozza & Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczény. Early Microvascular Changes with Loss of the Glycocalyx in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. J Pediatr. (2014) 164(3):584-589.
  • Carmen A. Vlahu, Bregtje A. Lemkes, Dirk G. Struijk, Marion G. Koopman, Raymond T. Krediet & Hans Vink. Damage of the Endothelial Glycocalyx in Dialysis Patients. J Am Soc Nephro (2012) l23:1900–1908.
  • Remy J.H. Martens, Hans Vink, Robert J. van Oostenbrugge & Julie Staals. Sublingual Microvascular Glycocalyx Dimensions in Lacunar Stroke Patients. Cerebrovasc Dis (2013) 35:451–454.
  • Elaheh Rahbar, Jessica C Cardenas, Gyulnar Baimukanova, Benjamin Usadi, Roberta Bruhn, Shibani Pati, Sisse R Ostrowski, Pär I Johansson, John B Holcomb & Charles E Wade. Endothelial Glycocalyx Shedding and Vascular Permeability in Severely Injured Trauma Patients. J Transl Med. (2015) 13:117.
  • Masaakira Maeda, Tutomu Uehara, Naoki Harada, Masayuki Sekiguchi & Atsushi Hiraok. Heparinoids-active Sulphated Polysaccharides from Monostroma nitidum and Their Distribution in the Chlorophyta. Phytochemistry (1991) 30(11):3611-3614.
  • Naoki Harada & Masaakira Maeda. Chemical Structure of Antithrombin-active Rhamnan Sulfate from Monostrom nitidum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. (1998) 62(9):1647-1652.
  • We-Jun Mao, Fang Fang, Hong-Yan Li, Xia-Hui Qi, Hai-Hong Sun, Yan Chen & Shou-Dong Guo. Heparinoid-active Two Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Green Algae Monstrom nitidum. Carbohydrate Polymers (2008) 74:834-839.
  • Limary Melissa Cancel & John M Tarbell. Rhamnan Sulfate Enhances the Endothelial Glycocalyx and Decreases the LDL Permeability of Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells In Vitro. The FASEB Journal (2013) 27:896.3
  • Masakatsu Nishikawa, Masayuki Mitsui, Koji Umeda, Yoshikuni Kitaoka, Yoshie Takahashi & Shigeo Tanaka. Effect of Sulfated Polysaccharides Extract from Sea Algae (Monostroma latissium and Monostroma nitidum) on Serum Cholesterol in Subjects with Borderline or Mild Hypercholesterolemia. J. New Rem. & Clin. (2006) 55(11):95-102 (Japanese).
  • Antidiabetic Compounds from Marine Organisms and Their Properties (2012) Page 11. (In Marine Pharmacognosy: Trends and Applications. Edited by Se-Kwon Kim)

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